The first graduating high school class was in 1936 with five students. The school separated into an elementary school and high school in 1960. The high school, formerly referred to as St. Anastasia Parish High School, changed its name to Central Catholic High School in 1963 with a new building constructed on Delaware Avenue.
With the vision of Monsignor Michael Beerhalter, who succeeded Father Gabriel, the high school was then renamed again in 1965 to John Carroll High School. The name was derived from Pope John XXIII and Bishop Coleman Carroll. John Carroll became a regional/diocesan high school in 1965 and was part of the Diocese of Orlando. The Diocese of Palm Beach was created in 1984, and John Carroll became one of its three diocesan high schools.
John Carroll is governed by a school pastor/president and a principal. The bishop is the owner of the school and appoints the superintendent of schools.
Bishop: Most Reverend Gerald M. Barbarito
Superintendent: Gary Gelo
Assistant Superintendent: John Clarke
- Monsignor Beerhalter until 1970s
- Father Edward McCarthy, 1972-75
- Father Michael Woodcock, 1975-78 and 2001-02
- Father Hugh Duffy, 1978-80
- Father David Acker, 1980-87
- Father Mark Christopher, 1987-88
- Father Mark Szanyi, 1988-1997
- Father Thomas Barrett, 2002-present
- Sister Jean Elizabeth, 1964-72
- Susan Taggart, 1972-76
- Sister Paul Emelia Brown, 1976-1982
- Clyde Russell, 1982-2005
- Ben Hopper, 2005-2018
- Corey Heroux, 2018-present